Postharvest Management

Seeds Land Planting Nutrient Water Pest HarvestPinoy Rice - Harvest

 

 

 

 

 

crop-establishment-imgKEY CHECK 9:
DRIED, CLEANED, AND STORED GRAINS PROPERLY.

Proper drying, cleaning, and storing maintains grain quality, and helps control postharvest losses. These also maintain the quality of palay suitable for milling and allow long storage.

Producing high-quality rice helps meet customers’ requirement and acceptance in the market. It also achieves greater overall market value.

 

KEY CHECK 8: HARVESTED THE CROP AT THE RIGHT TIME.

 

ASSESSMENT OF KEY CHECK

Uniformly dried grains within 12-24 hours after harvest.

Attained premium quality of grains.

Properly stored cleaned grains at 12-14% MC.

RECOMMENDATIONS TO ACHIEVE KEY CHECK

1. Dry the palay uniformly within 12-24 hours after harvest/threshing.

  • Use mechanical dryers at temperature not exceeding 50-70°C for 5-8 hours.
  • When drying dripping-wet palay, operate the dryer with unheated air during the first 1-2 hours of drying or until 18% MC (skin dry).
  • Reduce drying air temperature to 40-45°C during the last 2 hours of drying or when MC is about 15%. Dry grains to 12-14% MC.
  • When no mechanical dryer is available, sun-dry on clean concreted pavement. Stir the grains at least once every 30min for uniform drying. Avoid getting the dried palay drenched with rain.

Table 1. Advantages and disadvantages of sun-drying and mechanical drying

Drying technique Advantages Disadvantages
Sun-drying
  • low maintenance cost
  • thorough and complete drying
  • energy-efficient
  • kills fungi and other storage pests
  • weather dependent
  • requires more labor
  • uncontrollable heating
  • prone to contamination
Mechanical drying
  • not weather dependent
  • requires less labor
  • controlled drying air temperature
  • easier operation
  • kills fungi and other storage pests
  • higher drying cost
  • uneven drying (conventional flatbed)
  • less energy efficient

 

2. Place dried grains on top of palettes to protect them from dampness while awaiting grain cleaning.

 

  • Use clean containers or sacks with plastic lining.
  • Ensure that correct label is placed inside and outside the sack.
  • Store dried grains before cleaning for not longer than three days.

3. Clean grains 2-3 days after drying.

  • Remove impurities such as chaff or unfilled grains and straw, which have high MC that causes hot spots inside the sack.
    If using a grain cleaner, regulate its speed to minimize losses. Before using the grain cleaner, ensure that it is clean and free from any grain left from previous operation.

4. If not sold immediately, keep grains in a storage area that is waterproof, with proper aeration, and free from pests such as rats, birds, and insects.

  • Never store clean, dried grains together with agricultural chemicals, fertilizers, or cement in the same storage area.
  • Check for heating by lifting the top bag and feeling the bag below.
  • Inspect the stacks at least once a week to detect pest infestation, physical damage, or staining caused by water which indicates re-wetting.
  • Keep the storage area clean and tidy inside and outside, and ensure periodic aeration to:
    • a. prevent re-entry of moisture in stored grains
    • b. protect grains from insects, rodents, and birds
    • c. facilitate loading and unloading
    • d. maximize the use of space
    • e. ease product maintenance and management

5. Do not drag rice sacks when transporting to prevent damages. Use sack barrows if available.

6. Prepare the stack layout plan before the sacks arrive.

  • Do not mix varieties in one stack or pile. Do not mix old and new stocks in the pile
  • The pile should be built up to the edge of the pallet. Bonded piles are more stable.
  • Provide air spaces in every pile for ventilation.
  • Piles should not be so high that pallets at the bottom are crushed or split. Up to 6-7 bags per pile is acceptable. Height of stacks should not exceed the height of the walls.
  • Maintain one-meter space between piles, walls, and roof frames

MATERIALS

Handouts

pagpapatuyo-ng-palay-sa-araw

Pagpapatuyo ng palay sa araw

pag-iimbak-ng-binhi

Pag-iimbak ng binhi

 

Learning Modules

postharvest-management

Postharvest Management

 

Audio Clips

pagtutuyo-ng-palay

Pagtutuyo ng palay

mga-pakinabang-ng-ipa

Mga pakinabang ng ipa

de-makinang-ipa

De-makinang ipa

may-pera-sa-bulate

May pera sa bulate

 

Technology Videos

Key check 9: Pinatuyo, nilinis, at inimbak nang maayos ang palay

Key check 9: Pinatuyo, nilinis, at inimbak nang maayos ang palay

Saclob (Hermetic Seed Storage)

Saclob (Hermetic Seed Storage)

Rice Mini-Combine

Rice Mini-Combine